Main Index City Spectra The New Sky-Glow Spectra Evolution of Sky-Glow Lighting Laws
The spectrum near that downtown hot-spot (top picture) is shown below. This is easily obtained with today's DSLR cameras - as long as you're aware of the capabilities of your equipment and know how to modify and tweak all the parts to make them work.
Currently, all cities and towns, even those with LED systems, have the same elements & phosphors appearing in their sky-glow in varying strengths. Precise data will be found in "Your Light-Pollution - The New Sky-Glow Spectra".
Without getting into the details of the spectrographic device I constructed and DSLR body modifications I made to obtain my up-light spectrographs, the results need to be analyzed and referenced - otherwise they are meaningless. Any digital camera can capture spectra with some preparation. Using exactly the same setup, obtaining different lamp spectra as comparisons is relatively straightforward. The lamps are bright and require fractions of a second to get their spectra as compared to the few minutes required for overcast spectra or 20 minutes and more to get good clear-night spectra.
I can get plenty of detail with my spectrographic setup..the runnup of a once very common lamp, that of HPS, from the xenon-mercury starters on through to the pressure-broadening of the sodium is shown below.
The values for the mercury and sodium spectral lines are well known, in Angstroms or in nanometers. These can be found in many published papers or online documents.
Spectral Analysis Of My Sky-Glow:
First, a comparison of my clear-night spectrum (top portion) obtained in 2008, with a DX phosphor-coated mercury-vapor lamp (bottom portion):
I get the mercury (Hg) lines alright, but the bands due to the DX phosphor do not match anything in my sky-glow.
Comparison of my 2008 clear night spectrum (top) with a high-pressure-sodium lamp (bottom):
Ok good, I get many sodium lines, however, there are blue and blue-green lines unaccounted for.
Comparison of my 2008 clear night spectrum (top) with a standard North American metal-halide lamp (bottom part):
This comparison not only gives me the
significant contributions from one element but the mercury lines as well. Most of the lines can now be attributed; the similarity in the violet and blue parts of the spectrum is interesting. Moreover, the peak inside the Na self-reversal band can now be explained. The white arrows indicatethe spectral lines of ONLY one element. What is this element?
Going further, using an overcast spectrum to bring out red features, a more recent up-light spectrum (April 2017) is compared to the spectrum of an induction-lamp. This type of outdoor fluorescent lamp has the same modern phosphors as any compact-fluorescent-lamp - the so-called tri-phosphors.
The 3 phosphor bands of the "tri-phosphor" lamp are marked with heavy arrows. I can now attribute that extra red line (to the left of the 616 nm sodium line) to induction lighting. No, that line can't be due to porch lights. The very strong Hg lines in contemporary urban sky-glow with this extra red line infers strong fluorescent lighting. The spectral signature of such a lamp:
The up-light spectrum of any region can now be completely known (at least by me). Even minor lines (or features) can be attributed. It turns out that both up-light and clear-night skyglow are quite variable in time or by location.
Variation by location:
The greatest relative spectral variation of up-light is due to the type of lighting employed locally. It can also be variable with a simple viewpoint change for the same location.
You can get precise details and more in the New Sky-Glow Spectra.